The Perpetuation series continues the theme of traditional methods and genres cast against modern techniques. This piece focuses on the practice of outdoor painting. It is a procedural collaboration with the computer, a painting that's never finished.

By Balthazar Malevolent


Michael Kozlowski is an American media artist and software developer. His primary interests are real-time graphics, mixed reality, and interactivity.

As immersive technology becomes more prevalent, traditional two-dimensional video will concede its monopoly on our experience of digital media. Michael is interested in this middle ground—the awkward but often beautiful transition of media as it crosses from two to three dimensions. Most of his work incorporates the input of live or prerecorded two-dimensional video and physical interaction, which is processed and transformed in real-time. He makes video, digital sculptures, and software applications.

​Kozlowski attended the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, where he earned his bachelor’s degree. He currently works at Microsoft.

A holographic display is a type of display that utilizes light diffraction to create a virtual three-dimensional image. Holographic displays are distinguished from other forms of 3D displays in that they do not require the aid of any special glasses or external equipment for a viewer to see the image.


1947 - Hungarian scientist Dennis Gabor first came up with the concept of a hologram while trying to improve the resolution of electron microscopes. He derived the name for holography, with "holos" being the Greek word for "whole," and "gramma" which is the term for "message."

1960 - The world's first laser was developed by Russian scientists Nikolay Basov and Alexander Prokhorov, and American scientist Charles H. Townes. This was a major milestone for holography because laser technology serves as the basis of some modern day holographic displays.

1962 - Yuri Denisyuk invented the white-light reflection hologram which was the first hologram that could be viewed under the light given off by an ordinary incandescent light bulb.

1968 - White-light transmission holography was invented by Stephen Benton. This type of holography was unique because it was able to reproduce the entire spectrum of colors by separating the seven colors that create white light.

1972 - Lloyd Cross produced the first traditional hologram by using white-light transmission holography to recreate a moving 3-dimensional image.

1989 - MIT spatial imaging group pioneered electroholography, which uses magnetic waves and acoustic-optical sensors to portray moving pictures onto a display.

2005 - The University of Texas developed the laser plasma display, which is considered the first real 3D holographic display.

2010 - Hollow pyramid shaped prisms are released into the consumer market, which if placed over a flat screen (or smartphone), can emulate a three-dimensional image by means of 2-D light refraction.

2012 - The first holographic display is implemented in a car's interactive navigation display system. The technology was showcased through the exclusive luxury car, the Lykan HyperSport.

2013 - MIT researcher Michael Bove predicts that holographic displays will enter the mass market within the next ten years, adding that we already have all the technology necessary for holographic displays.

Michael KozlowskiMichael Kozlowski

In other news, Rick Owens Fall 2021 fashion show. On the subject of underthings, the pentagram briefs from the January men’s show reappeared here wrapped around evening clutches, the implication being that these alien females had handled the “unhinged male aggression” that those briefs signified.

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